Notable examples include Curitiba, Brazil and Bogota, Colombia.
Reducing urban heat-island impacts also reduces energy requirements for air conditioning, smog levels, and health risks due to heat stress and poor air quality. Careful planning can, however, overcome these obstacles, e. Whetherthe approach is mid-rise or very high- density cities, development of space-efficient rapid transit infrastructures and green spaces is critical to support physically active lifestyles.
Energy-efficient transport Healthy urban diets Slum upgrading Healthy, energy-efficient housing Improved urban waste management. The challenges of evaluating environmental interventions to increase population levels of physical activity: the case of the UK National Cycle Network.
D Lawlor. How the built environment affects physical activity: views from urban planning. Susan L.
Handy , Marlon G. Land use planning: why public health must be involved. Richard J.
Healthy Urban Planning | Taylor & Francis Group
Jackson , Toni Harp , Tom Wright. Related Papers.
But the MIT report knocks down many of the assumptions that have become entrenched in how we think about health and cities: namely, that walkable cities are healthier than auto-oriented suburbs, that cars are a primary cause of our expanding waistlines, that too much fast food and too little fresh fruit are to blame for inner-city obesity. In fact, MIT points out that American life expectancy has increased alongside motorization since Many inner cities actually have higher obesity rates than suburbs.
Inner-ring suburbs have some of the best health outcomes. There's no evidence to suggest that sprawl causes obesity, although there is some research arguing that people who already are obese opt to live in sprawling places.
Evidence of direct causation is scant throughout this entire emerging field in part because the determinants of what makes us healthy are so complicated. The science on food deserts is particularly weak, as is research showing that ubiquitous fast food causes diabetes. Along the way, the report critiques a number of current projects in eight U.
The report questions a strategy in Los Angeles to build more transit-oriented development, which could actually wind up moving more people into the city's most highly polluted transportation corridors trading one health problem for another.
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It dismisses a Chicago plan to build 17 grocery stores in low-income neighborhoods as an oversimplified solution to intractable obesity that will do little to dent it. MIT also skewers Atlanta's BeltLine project for failing to consider the increased traffic pollution that people using its trails and parks would be exposed to.
This is economically and politically unfeasible in an area of higher density and land locked real estate. A recurring thread throughout the report is one of humility: We don't know as much as we think we do, and there are certainly no silver-bullet design solutions for systemic public health problems.
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